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Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/webConfig.php on line 20
Hipospadia (kelaianan penis)

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    Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/class.smart_counter.php on line 153

    Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/class.smart_counter.php on line 153

    Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/class.smart_counter.php on line 155

    Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/London' for 'BST/1.0/DST' instead in /home/k0996823/public_html/inc/class.smart_counter.php on line 155
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    Hipospadia (kelaianan penis)

    Hypospadia merupakan kelainan congenital dari genetalia eksterna laki-laki. Dari kepustakaan dapat dijumpai sekitar 1:350-1000 kelahiran hidup bayi laki-laki. Kelainan ini ditandai dengan orifisium urethra eksternum terletak lebih proksimal. Sesuai dengan lokasinya disebut hypospadia grandular, penil, penoscrotal dan perineal.

    Rekonstruksi  hipospadia

                Penyebabnya belum diketahui, meskipun ada factor yang diduga berperan adalah pemberian progesterone pada waktu ibu hamil muda, perubahan dari sperma, yang menimbulkan resolusi dini dari sel-sel leidig yang memproduksi testoteron intra uteri.

                Gangguan pertumbuhan yang terjadi menyebabkan pertumbuhan urethra terhenti. Pada penderita hypospadia didapatkan perubahan anatomis sebagai berikut:

    1. Muara urethra eksterna (MUE) yang terletak lebih proksimal, bisa disertai dengan lubang yang kecil
    2. Adanya pembengkokan penis (curve penis) karena adanya chordae yang terdiri dari jaringan fibrosis yang dianggap berasal dari jaringan calon urethra
    3. Preputium didapatkan banyak pada bagian dorsal dan tidak ada pada bagian ventral.

       

     

    Tipe hipospadia dan prosentase kejadian

                Akibat dari Orifisium urethra yang tidak terletak diujung, penderita tidak dapat mengarahkan kencingnya dan membasahi pahanya. Adanya chordae menyebabkan bengkoknya penis kearah ventral (curve penis) dan rasa sakit pada waktu ereksi, yang mengakibatkan kesukaran senggama dikemudian hari. Selain itu penderita dapat merasa rendah diri bila belum ditolong pada usia sekolah (sekitar 4 tahun keatas).

    Timing operasi one stage:

    • Schultz et al (1983) ------------------------------- 6-18 bulan
    • Manley et al (1981), Belman (1982) ------------6 bulan